March 2001, ver. 4.1 Data SheetFeatures... ■ Provides an ideal low-cost, programmable alternative to high-
volume gate array applications and allows fast design changes
during prototyping or design testing
■ Product features
– Register-rich, look-up table- (LUT-) based architecture
– OptiFLEX® architecture that increases device area efficiency
– Typical gates ranging from 5,000 to 24,000 gates (see Table 1)
– Built-in low-skew clock distribution tree
– 100% functional testing of all devices; test vectors or scan chains
are not required
■ System-level features
– In-circuit reconfigurability (ICR) via external configuration
device or intelligent controller
– 5.0-V devices are fully compliant with peripheral component
interconnect Special Interest Group (PCI SIG) PCI Local Bus
Specification, Revision 2.2
– Built-in Joint Test Action Group (JTAG) boundary-scan test
(BST) circuitry compliant with IEEE Std. 1149.1-1990, available
without consuming additional device logic
– MultiVoltTM I/O interface operation, allowing a device to bridge
between systems operating at different voltages
– Low power consumption (typical specification less than 0.5 mA
in standby mode)
– 3.3-V devices support hot-socketing
(1) The embedded IEEE Std. 1149.1 JTAG circuitry adds up to 14,000 gates in addition to the listed typical gates.
Table 1. FLEX 6000 Device Features
Feature EPF6010A EPF6016 EPF6016A EPF6024A
Typical gates (1) 10,000 16,000 16,000 24,000
Logic elements (LEs) 880 1,320 1,320 1,960
Maximum I/O pins 102 204 171 218
Supply voltage (VCCINT) 3.3 V 5.0 V 3.3 V 3.3 VAltera Corporation 1
FLEX 6000 Programmable Logic Device Family Data Sheet...and More
■ Powerful I/O pins
– Individual tri-state output enable control for each pin
– Programmable output slew-rate control to reduce switching
– Fast path from register to I/O pin for fast clock-to-output time
■ Flexible interconnect
– FastTrack® Interconnect continuous routing structure for fast,
predictable interconnect delays
– Dedicated carry chain that implements arithmetic functions such
as fast adders, counters, and comparators (automatically used by
software tools and megafunctions)
– Dedicated cascade chain that implements high-speed, high-fan-
in logic functions (automatically used by software tools and
– Tri-state emulation that implements internal tri-state networks
– Four low-skew global paths for clock, clear, preset, or logic
■ Software design support and automatic place-and-route provided by
Altera’s development system for Windows-based PCs, Sun
SPARCstations, and HP 9000 Series 700/800
■ Flexible package options
– Available in a variety of packages with 100 to 256 pins, including
the innovative FineLine BGATM packages (see Table 2)
– SameFrameTM pin-compatibility (with other FLEX® 6000 devices)
across device densities and pin counts
– Thin quad flat pack (TQFP), plastic quad flat pack (PQFP), and
ball-grid array (BGA) packages (see Table 2)
– Footprint- and pin-compatibility with other FLEX 6000 devices
in the same package
■ Additional design entry and simulation support provided by
EDIF 2 0 0 and 3 0 0 netlist files, the library of parameterized modules
(LPM), Verilog HDL, VHDL, DesignWare components, and other
interfaces to popular EDA tools from manufacturers such as
Cadence, Exemplar Logic, Mentor Graphics, OrCAD, Synopsys,
Synplicity, VeriBest, and Viewlogic
Table 2. FLEX 6000 Package Options & I/O Pin Count
EPF6010A 71 102
EPF6016 117 171 199 204
EPF6016A 81 81 117 171 171
EPF6024A 117 171 199 218 2192 Altera Corporation
FLEX 6000 Programmable Logic Device Family Data SheetGeneral
The Altera® FLEX 6000 programmable logic device (PLD) family provides
a low-cost alternative to high-volume gate array designs. FLEX 6000
devices are based on the OptiFLEX architecture, which minimizes die size
while maintaining high performance and routability. The devices have
reconfigurable SRAM elements, which give designers the flexibility to
quickly change their designs during prototyping and design testing.
Designers can also change functionality during operation via in-circuit
FLEX 6000 devices are reprogrammable, and they are 100% tested prior to
shipment. As a result, designers are not required to generate test vectors
for fault coverage purposes, allowing them to focus on simulation and
design verification. In addition, the designer does not need to manage
inventories of different gate array designs. FLEX 6000 devices are
configured on the board for the specific functionality required.
Table 3 shows FLEX 6000 performance for some common designs. All
performance values shown were obtained using Synopsys DesignWare or
LPM functions. Special design techniques are not required to implement
the applications; the designer simply infers or instantiates a function in a
Verilog HDL, VHDL, Altera Hardware Description Language (AHDL), or
schematic design file.
(1) This performance value is measured as a pin-to-pin delay.
Table 3. FLEX 6000 Device Performance for Common Designs
Application LEs Used Performance Units
16-bit loadable counter 16 172 153 133 MHz
16-bit accumulator 16 172 153 133 MHz
24-bit accumulator 24 136 123 108 MHz
16-to-1 multiplexer (pin-to-pin) (1) 10 12.1 13.4 16.6 ns
16 × 16 multiplier with a 4-stage pipeline 592 84 67 58 MHzAltera Corporation 3
FLEX 6000 Programmable Logic Device Family Data SheetTable 4 shows FLEX 6000 performance for more complex designs.
(1) The applications in this table were created using Altera MegaCoreTM functions.
FLEX 6000 devices are supported by Altera development systems; a
single, integrated package that offers schematic, text (including AHDL),
and waveform design entry, compilation and logic synthesis, full
simulation and worst-case timing analysis, and device configuration. The
Altera software provides EDIF 2 0 0 and 3 0 0, LPM, VHDL, Verilog HDL,
and other interfaces for additional design entry and simulation support
from other industry-standard PC- and UNIX workstation-based EDA
The Altera software works easily with common gate array EDA tools for
synthesis and simulation. For example, the Altera software can generate
Verilog HDL files for simulation with tools such as Cadence Verilog-XL.
Additionally, the Altera software contains EDA libraries that use device-
specific features such as carry chains which are used for fast counter and
arithmetic functions. For instance, the Synopsys Design Compiler library
supplied with the Altera development systems include DesignWare
functions that are optimized for the FLEX 6000 architecture.
The Altera development system runs on Windows-based PCs, Sun
SPARCstations, and HP 9000 Series 700/800.
f See the MAX+PLUS II Programmable Logic Development System & Software
Data Sheet and the Quartus Programmable Logic Development System &
Software Data Sheet for more information.
Table 4. FLEX 6000 Device Performance for Complex Designs Note (1)
Application LEs Used Performance Units
8-bit, 16-tap parallel finite impulse response
599 94 80 72 MSPS
8-bit, 512-point fast Fourier transform (FFT)
a16450 universal asynchronous
487 36 30 25 MHz
PCI bus target with zero wait states 609 56 49 42 MHz4 Altera Corporation
FLEX 6000 Programmable Logic Device Family Data SheetFunctional
The FLEX 6000 OptiFLEX architecture consists of logic elements (LEs).
Each LE includes a 4-input look-up table (LUT), which can implement any
4-input function, a register, and dedicated paths for carry and cascade
chain functions. Because each LE contains a register, a design can be easily
pipelined without consuming more LEs. The specified gate count for
FLEX 6000 devices includes all LUTs and registers.
LEs are combined into groups called logic array blocks (LABs); each LAB
contains 10 LEs. The Altera software automatically places related LEs into
the same LAB, minimizing the number of required interconnects. Each
LAB can implement a medium-sized block of logic, such as a counter or
Signal interconnections within FLEX 6000 devices—and to and from
device pins—are provided via the routing structure of the FastTrack
Interconnect. The routing structure is a series of fast, continuous row and
column channels that run the entire length and width of the device. Any
LE or pin can feed or be fed by any other LE or pin via the FastTrack
Interconnect. See “FastTrack Interconnect” on page 17 of this data sheet
for more information.
Each I/O pin is fed by an I/O element (IOE) located at the end of each row
and column of the FastTrack Interconnect. Each IOE contains a
bidirectional I/O buffer. Each IOE is placed next to an LAB, where it can
be driven by the local interconnect of that LAB. This feature allows fast
clock-to-output times of less than 8 ns when a pin is driven by any of the
10 LEs in the adjacent LAB. Also, any LE can drive any pin via the row and
column interconnect. I/O pins can drive the LE registers via the row and
column interconnect, providing setup times as low as 2 ns and hold times
of 0 ns. IOEs provide a variety of features, such as JTAG BST support,
slew-rate control, and tri-state buffers.
Figure 1 shows a block diagram of the FLEX 6000 OptiFLEX architecture.
Each group of ten LEs is combined into an LAB, and the LABs are
arranged into rows and columns. The LABs are interconnected by the
FastTrack Interconnect. IOEs are located at the end of each FastTrack
Interconnect row and column.Altera Corporation 5
FLEX 6000 Programmable Logic Device Family Data SheetFigure 1. OptiFLEX Architecture Block Diagram
FLEX 6000 devices provide four dedicated, global inputs that drive the
control inputs of the flipflops to ensure efficient distribution of high-
speed, low-skew control signals. These inputs use dedicated routing
channels that provide shorter delays and lower skews than the FastTrack
Interconnect. These inputs can also be driven by internal logic, providing
an ideal solution for a clock divider or an internally generated
asynchronous clear signal that clears many registers in the device. The
dedicated global routing structure is built into the device, eliminating the
need to create a clock tree.
Logic Array Block
An LAB consists of ten LEs, their associated carry and cascade chains, the
LAB control signals, and the LAB local interconnect. The LAB provides
the coarse-grained structure of the FLEX 6000 architecture, and facilitates
efficient routing with optimum device utilization and high performance.
(Each LAB accesses
two local interconnect
areas.)6 Altera Corporation
FLEX 6000 Programmable Logic Device Family Data SheetThe interleaved LAB structure—an innovative feature of the FLEX 6000
architecture—allows each LAB to drive two local interconnects. This
feature minimizes the use of the FastTrack Interconnect, providing higher
performance. An LAB can drive 20 LEs in adjacent LABs via the local
interconnect, which maximizes fitting flexibility while minimizing die
size. See Figure 2.
Figure 2. Logic Array Block
In most designs, the registers only use global clock and clear signals.
However, in some cases, other clock or asynchronous clear signals are
needed. In addition, counters may also have synchronous clear or load
signals. In a design that uses non-global clock and clear signals, inputs
from the first LE in an LAB are re-routed to drive the control signals for
that LAB. See Figure 3.
The 10 LEs in the LAB are driven by two
local interconnect areas. The LAB can drive
two local interconnect areas.
The row interconnect is
to the local interconnect.
LEs can directly drive the row
and column interconnect.
LAB or IOEs
LAB or IOEsAltera Corporation 7
FLEX 6000 Programmable Logic Device Family Data SheetFigure 3. LAB Control Signals
An LE, the smallest unit of logic in the FLEX 6000 architecture, has a
compact size that provides efficient logic usage. Each LE contains a four-
input LUT, which is a function generator that can quickly implement any
function of four variables. An LE contains a programmable flipflop, carry
and cascade chains. Additionally, each LE drives both the local and the
FastTrack Interconnect. See Figure 4.
Input signals to the first
LE in an LAB (i.e., LE 1)
can be rerouted to drive
control signals within
The dedicated input signals
can drive the clock and
asynchronous clear signals.
LAB-wide control signals
(SYNCLR and SYNLOAD
signals are used in counter mode).
Dedicated Inputs8 Altera Corporation
FLEX 6000 Programmable Logic Device Family Data SheetFigure 4. Logic Element
The programmable flipflop in the LE can be configured for D, T, JK, or SR
operation. The clock and clear control signals on the flipflop can be driven
by global signals, general-purpose I/O pins, or any internal logic. For
combinatorial functions, the flipflop is bypassed and the output of the
LUT drives the outputs of the LE. The LE output can drive both the local
interconnect and the FastTrack Interconnect.
The FLEX 6000 architecture provides two types of dedicated high-speed
data paths that connect adjacent LEs without using local interconnect
paths: carry chains and cascade chains. A carry chain supports high-speed
arithmetic functions such as counters and adders, while a cascade chain
implements wide-input functions such as equivalent comparators with
minimum delay. Carry and cascade chains connect LEs 2 through 10 in an
LAB and all LABs in the same half of the row. Because extensive use of
carry and cascade chains can reduce routing flexibility, these chains
should be limited to speed-critical portions of a design.
labctrl4Altera Corporation 9