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LNK408EG

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LNK408EG

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Part Number LNK408EG
Manufacturer Power Integrations
Description IC LED DRIVER OFFL DIM ESIP-7C
Datasheet LNK408EG Datasheet
Package 7-SIP, 6 Leads, Exposed Pad, Formed Leads
In Stock 13,778 piece(s)
Unit Price $ 2.4323 *
Lead Time Can Ship Immediately
Estimated Delivery Time Jun 3 - Jun 8 (Choose Expedited Shipping)
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LNK408EG Specifications

ManufacturerPower Integrations
CategoryIntegrated Circuits (ICs) - PMIC - LED Drivers
Datasheet LNK408EGDatasheet
Package7-SIP, 6 Leads, Exposed Pad, Formed Leads
SeriesLinkSwitch?-PH
TypeAC DC Offline Switcher
TopologyFlyback
Internal Switch(s)Yes
Number of Outputs1
Voltage - Supply (Min)36V
Voltage - Supply (Max)725V
Voltage - Output-
Current - Output / Channel2.39A
Frequency66kHz
DimmingTriac
ApplicationsLighting
Operating Temperature-40°C ~ 150°C (TJ)
Mounting TypeThrough Hole
Package / Case7-SIP, 6 Leads, Exposed Pad, Formed Leads
Supplier Device PackageeSIP-7C

LNK408EG Datasheet

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LNK403-410/413-420 LinkSwitch-PH LED Driver IC Family www.power.com June 2015 Single-Stage PFC, Primary-Side Constant Current Control and TRIAC Dimming/Non-Dimming Options This Product is Covered by Patents and/or Pending Patent Applications. This product is not recommended for new designs. Output Power Table1,2 Product5 RV = 2 MW RV = 4 MW 85-132 VAC 85-308 VAC Minimum Output Power3 Maximum Output Power4 Minimum Output Power3 Maximum Output Power4 LNK403/413E/L 2.5 W 4.5 W 6.5 W 12 W LNK404/414E/L 2.5 W 5.5 W 6.5 W 15 W LNK405/415E/L 3.8 W 7.0 W 8.5 W 18 W LNK406/416E/L 4.5 W 8.0 W 10 W 22 W LNK407/417E/L 5.5 W 10 W 12 W 25 W LNK408/418E/L 6.8 W 13.5 W 16 W 35 W LNK409/419E/L 8.0 W 20 W 18 W 50 W LNK410/420E/L 18 W 31 W 40 W 78 W Table 1. Output Power Table. Notes: 1. Continuous power in an open frame with adequate heat sinking at device local ambient of 70 °C. 2. Power level calculated on typical LED string voltage with efficiency >80%. 3. Minimum output power with CBP = 10 mF. 4. Maximum output power with CBP = 100 mF. LNK4x3EG CBP = 10 mF. 5. Package: eSIP-7C, eSIP-7F. Product Highlights Dramatically Simplifies Off-line LED Drivers • Single-stage combination of power factor correction and accurate constant-current (CC) output • Enables very long lifetime designs (no electrolytic capacitors) • Eliminates optocoupler and all secondary current control circuitry • Eliminates control loop compensation circuitry • Simple primary-side PWM dimming interface • Universal input voltage range • LNK403-410 optimized for flicker-free TRIAC dimming EcoSmart™ – Energy Efficient • Single-stage PFC combined with output CC control • Greatly increases efficiency, >90% achievable • Reduces component count • No current sense resistors • Low standby power remote ON/OFF feature (<50 mW at 230 VAC) Accurate and Consistent Performance • Compensates for transformer inductance variations • Compensates for line input voltage variation • Frequency jittering greatly reduces EMI filter size and cost Advanced Protection and Safety Features • Auto-restart for short-circuit protection • Open circuit fault detection mode • Automatic thermal shutdown restart with hysteresis • Meets high voltage creepage requirement between DRAIN and all other signal pins both on PCB and at package Green Package • Halogen free and ROHS compliant package Applications • Off-line LED driver Description The LinkSwitch™-PH dramatically simplifies implementation of LED drivers requiring long lifetime, high efficiency, PF >0.9, and TRIAC dimming capability (LNK403-410). The single-stage combined power factor and constant-current controller eliminates a switching stage and the electrolytic bulk capacitor. The advanced primary-side control used by the LinkSwitch-PH device provides accurate constant current control while eliminating the need for an optocoupler and current sensing circuits. LinkSwitch-PH incorporates a 725 V power FET, a continuous- mode PWM controller, a high-voltage switched current source for self biasing, frequency jittering, protection circuitry including cycle-by-cycle current limit and hysteretic thermal shutdown. Figure 2. Package Options. eSIP-7F (L Package) eSIP-7C (E Package) Figure 1. Typical Application Schematic. PI-6543-082211 LinkSwitch-PH AC IN D S BP V FBR CONTROL RV

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Rev. G 06/15 2 LNK403-410/413-420 www.power.com Figure 4. Pin Configuration. Pin Functional Description DRAIN (D) Pin: This pin is the power FET drain connection. It also provides internal operating current for both start-up and steady-state operation. SOURCE (S) Pin: This pin is the power FET source connection. It is also the ground reference for the BYPASS, FEEDBACK, REFERENCE and VOLTAGE MONITOR pins. BYPASS (BP) Pin: This is the connection point for an external bypass capacitor for the internally generated 5.9 V supply. This pin also provides output power selection through choice of the BYPASS pin capacitor value. FEEDBACK (FB) Pin: The FEEDBACK pin is used for output voltage feedback. The current into the FEEDBACK pin is directly proportional to the output voltage. The FEEDBACK pin also includes circuitry to protect against open load and overload output conditions. REFERENCE (R) Pin: This pin is connected to an external precision resistor and is used to configure for dimming (LNK403-410) and non-TRIAC dimming (LNK413-420) modes of operation. VOLTAGE MONITOR (V) Pin: This pin interfaces with an external input line peak detector, consisting of a rectifier, filter capacitor and resistors. The applied current is used to control stop logic for line under- voltage (UV), overvoltage (OV), provide feed-forward to control the output current and the remote ON/OFF function. PI-5431-102610 ILIM DRAIN (D) SOURCE (S) BYPASS (BP) VOLTAGE MONITOR (V) FEEDBACK (FB) REFERENCE (R) ILIM VSENSE MI IS 5.9 V 5.0 V BYPASS PIN UNDERVOLTAGE FAULT PRESENT Gate Driver SenseFet OCP CURRENT LIMIT COMPARATOR 1 V 6.4 V FBOFF FBOFF IFB IV DCMAX DCMAX Comparator 5.9 V REGULATOR SOFT-START TIMER JITTER CLOCK OSCILLATOR AUTO-RESTART COUNTER BYPASS CAPACITOR SELECT FEEDBACK SENSE PFC/CC CONTROL LINE SENSE HYSTERETIC THERMAL SHUTDOWN + - + - + - 3-VT VBG UV/OV REFERENCE BLOCK LEB MI VBG STOP LOGIC PI-5432-082411 Exposed Pad (backside) Internally Connected to SOURCE Pin (see eSIP-7C Package Drawing) 1 R 2 V 3 FB 4 BP 5 S 7 D E Package (eSIP-7C) (Top View) Lead Bend Outward from Drawing (Refer to eSIP-7F Package Outline Drawing) Exposed Pad (Backside) Internally Connected to SOURCE Pin 7 D 5 S 4 BP 3 FB 2 V 1 R L Package (eSIP-7F) Figure 3. Functional Block Diagram.

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Rev. G 06/15 3 LNK403-410/413-420 www.power.com Functional Description A LinkSwitch-PH device monolithically integrates a controller and high-voltage power FET into one package. The controller implements both high power factor and a constant current output in a single stage. The LinkSwitch-PH controller consists of an oscillator, feedback (sense and logic) circuit, 5.9 V regulator, hysteretic over-temperature protection, frequency jittering, cycle-by-cycle current limit, auto-restart, inductance correction, power factor and constant current control. FEEDBACK Pin Current Control Characteristics The figure shown below illustrates the operating boundaries of the FEEDBACK pin current. Above IFB(SKIP) switching is disabled and below IFB(AR) the device enters into auto-restart. Figure 5. FEEDBACK Pin Current Characteristic. The FEEDBACK pin current is also used to clamp the maximum duty cycle to limit the available output power for overload and open-loop conditions. This duty cycle reduction characteristic also promotes a monotonic output current start-up characteristic to prevent over-shoot. REFERENCE Pin The REFERENCE pin is tied to ground (SOURCE) via an external resistor. The value selected sets the internal references, determining the operating mode for dimming (LNK403-410) and non-dimming (LNK413-420) operation and the line undervoltage and overvoltage thresholds of the VOLTAGE MONITOR pin. For non-dimming or PWM dimming applications with LNK413-420, the external resistor should be a 24.9 kW ±1%, for high-line and universal input voltage designs, and 49.9 kW ±1% for low-line input voltage designs. For phase angle AC dimming with LNK403-410, the external resistor should be a 49.9 kW ±1%. One percent resistors are recommended as the resistor tolerance directly affects the output tolerance. Other resistor values should not be used. BYPASS Pin Capacitor Power Gain Selection LinkSwitch-PH devices have the capability to tailor the internal gain to either full or a reduced output power setting. This allows selection of a larger device to minimize dissipation for both thermal and efficiency reasons. The power gain is selected with the value of the BYPASS pin capacitor. The full power setting is selected with a 100 mF capacitor and the reduced power setting (for higher efficiency) is selected with a 10 mF capacitor. The BYPASS pin capacitor sets both the internal power gain as well as the over-current protection (OCP) threshold. Unlike the larger devices, the LNK4x3 power gain is not programmable. Use a 10 mF capacitor for the LNK4x3. Switching Frequency The switching frequency is 66 kHz. To further reduce the EMI level, the switching frequency is jittered (frequency modulated) by approximately ±1 kHz. Soft-Start The controller includes a soft-start timing feature which inhibits the auto-restart protection feature for the soft-start period (tSOFT) to distinguish start-up into a fault (short-circuit) from a large output capacitor. At start-up the LinkSwitch-PH clamps the maximum duty cycle to reduce the output power. The total soft-start period is tSOFT. Remote ON/OFF and EcoSmart The VOLTAGE MONITOR pin has a 1 V threshold comparator connected at its input. This voltage threshold is used for remote ON/OFF control. When a signal is received at the VOLTAGE MONITOR pin to disable the output (VOLTAGE MONITOR pin tied to ground through an optocoupler photo- transistor) the LinkSwitch-PH will complete its current switching cycle before the internal power FET is forced off. The remote ON/OFF feature can also be used as an eco-mode or power switch to turn off the LinkSwitch-PH and keep it in a very low power consumption state for indefinite long periods. When the LinkSwitch-PH is remotely turned on after entering this mode, it will initiate a normal start-up sequence with soft-start the next time the BYPASS pin reaches 5.9 V. In the worst case, the delay from remote on to start-up can be equal to the full discharge/charge cycle time of the BYPASS pin. This reduced consumption remote off mode can eliminate expensive and unreliable in-line mechanical switches. IFB(AR) IFB(DCMAXR) DC10 DCMAX IFB(SKIP) IFB PI-5433-060410 Skip-Cycle CC Control Region Soft-Start and CC Fold-Back Region Auto-Restart Maximum Duty Cycle

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Rev. G 06/15 4 LNK403-410/413-420 www.power.com Figure 6. Remote ON/OFF VOLTAGE MONITOR pin Control 5.9 V Regulator/Shunt Voltage Clamp The internal 5.9 V regulator charges the bypass capacitor connected to the BYPASS pin to 5.9 V by drawing a current from the voltage on the DRAIN pin whenever the power FET is off. The BYPASS pin is the internal supply voltage node. When the power FET is on, the device operates from the energy stored in the bypass capacitor. Extremely low power consumption of the internal circuitry allows LinkSwitch-PH to operate continuously from current it takes from the DRAIN pin. A bypass capacitor value of 10 or 100 mF is sufficient for both high frequency decoupling and energy storage. In addition, there is a 6.4 V shunt regulator clamping the BYPASS pin at 6.4 V when current is provided to the BYPASS pin through an external resistor. This facilitates powering of LinkSwitch-PH externally through a bias winding to increase operating efficiency. It is recommended that the BYPASS pin is supplied current from the bias winding for normal operation. Auto-Restart In the event of an open-loop fault (open FEEDBACK pin resistor or broken path to feedback winding), output short-circuits or an overload condition the controller enters into the auto-restart mode. The controller annunciates both short-circuit and open-loop conditions once the FEEDBACK pin current falls below the IFB(AR) threshold after the soft-start period. To minimize the power dissipation under this fault condition the shutdown/auto-restart circuit turns the power supply on (same as the soft-start period) and off at an auto-restart duty cycle of typically DCAR for as long as the fault condition persists. If the fault is removed during the auto-restart off-time, the power supply will remain in auto-restart until the full off-time count is completed. Special consideration must be made to appropriately size the output capacitor to ensure that after the soft-start period (tSOFT) the FEEDBACK pin current is above the IFB(AR) threshold to ensure successful power-supply start-up. After the soft-start time period, auto-restart is activated only when the FEEDBACK pin current falls below IFB(AR). Over-Current Protection The current limit circuit senses the current in the power FET. When this current exceeds the internal threshold (ILIMIT), the power FET is turned off for the remainder of that cycle. A leading edge blanking circuit inhibits the current limit comparator for a short time (tLEB) after the power FET is turned on. This leading edge blanking time has been set so that current spikes caused by capacitance and rectifier reverse recovery will not cause premature termination of the power FET conduction. Line Under/Overvoltage Protection This device includes both line under- and overvoltage detection to limit the minimum start-up and maximum operating voltage detected through the VOLTAGE MONITOR pin. An external peak detector consisting of a diode and capacitor are required to provide input line peak voltage to the VOLTAGE MONITOR pin through a resistor. At power up, IUV+ keeps the LinkSwitch-PH off until the input line voltage reaches the undervoltage threshold. At power down, IUV- prevents restart attempts after the output goes out of regulation. The same resistor used for UV also sets line overvoltage (OV) shutdown threshold which, once exceeded, forces the LinkSwitch-PH to stop switching (after completion of the current switching cycle). Once the line voltage returns to normal, the device resumes normal operation. A small amount of hysteresis is provided on the OV threshold to prevent noise triggering. When the power FET is off, the rectified DC high voltage surge capability is increased to the voltage rating of the power FET (725 V), due to the absence of the reflected voltage and leakage spikes on the drain. Hysteretic Thermal Shutdown The thermal shutdown circuitry senses the controller die temperature. The threshold is set at 142 °C typical with a 75 °C hysteresis. When the die temperature rises above this threshold (142 °C) the power FET is disabled and remains disabled until the die temperature falls by 75 °C, at which point the power FET is re-enabled. Safe Operating Area (SOA) Protection The device also features a safe operating area (SOA) protection mode which disables FET switching for 40 cycles in the event the peak switch current reaches the ILIMIT threshold and the switch on-time is less than tON(SOA). This protection mode protects the device under short-circuited LED conditions and at start-up during the soft-start period when auto-restart protection is inhibited. The SOA protection mode remains active in normal operation. PI-5435-052510 D S BP V R FB CONTROL

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Rev. G 06/15 5 LNK403-410/413-420 www.power.com Application Example 14 W TRIAC Dimmable High Power Factor LED Driver Design Example The circuit schematic in Figure 7 shows a TRIAC dimmable high power-factor LED driver based on LNK406EG from the LinkSwitch-PH family of devices. It was optimized to drive an LED string at a voltage of 28 V with a constant current of 0.5 A (±5%) ideal for PAR lamp retro-fit applications. The design operates over a universal input voltage range of 90 VAC to 265 VAC but provides the specified output current tolerance over a line voltage range of 90 VAC to 132 VAC (this is configurable for high-line only applications by simple component value changes). The key goals of this design were compatibility with standard leading edge TRIAC AC dimmers, very wide dimming range (1000:1, 500 mA:0.5 mA), high efficiency (>85%) and high power factor (>0.9). The design is fully protected from faults such as no-load, overload and output short-circuit conditions and over temperature. Circuit Description The LinkSwitch-PH device (U1) integrates the power FET, controller and start-up functions into a single package reducing the component count versus typical implementations. Configured as part of an isolated continuous conduction mode flyback converter, U1 provides high power factor via its internal control algorithm together with the small input capacitance of the design. Continuous conduction mode operation results in reduced primary peak and RMS current. This both reduces EMI noise, allowing simpler, smaller EMI filtering components and improves efficiency. Output current regulation is maintained without the need for secondary-side sensing which eliminates current sense resistors and improves efficiency. Input Stage Fuse F1 provides protection from component failures while RV1 provides a clamp during differential line surges, keeping the peak drain voltage of U1 below the 725 V rating of the internal power FET. Bridge rectifier BR1 rectifies the AC line voltage. EMI filtering is provided by L1-L3, C1, R16 and R17 together with the safety rated Y class capacitor (C7) that bridges the safety isolation barrier between primary and secondary. Resistor R16 and R17 act to damp any resonances formed between L1, L2, C1 and the AC line impedance. A small bulk capacitor (C2) is required to provide a low impedance source for the primary switching current. The maximum value of C1 and C2 is limited in order to maintain a power factor of greater than 0.9. LinkSwitch-PH Primary To provide peak line voltage information to U1 the incoming rectified AC peak charges C3 via D2. This is then fed into the VOLTAGE MONITOR pin of U1 as a current via R2 and R3. This sensed current is also used by the device to set the line input overvoltage and undervoltage protection thresholds. Resistor R1 provides a discharge path for C3 with a time constant much longer than that of the rectified AC to prevent generation of line frequency ripple. The VOLTAGE MONITOR pin current and the FEEDBACK pin current are used internally to control the average output LED current. For TRIAC phase-dimming applications a 49.9 kW resistor (R4) is used on the REFERENCE pin and 4 MW (R2+R3) on the VOLTAGE MONITOR pin to provide a linear relationship between input voltage and the output current and maximizing the dimming range. Resistor R4 also sets the internal line input undervoltage and overvoltage protection thresholds. R11 2.4 MΩ R9 750 kΩ 1% R10 750 kΩ 1% PI-5997-061510 D S BP V R FB CONTROL FL1 T1 RM8 11 1 FL2 3 2R2 2 MΩ 1% R1 240 kΩ 1/2 W R16 1 kΩ L1 1000 µH L3 1000 µH L2 1000 µH R17 1 kΩ R3 2 MΩ 1% R4 49.9 kΩ 1% R6 162 kΩ 1% R15 20 kΩ 28 V, 500 mA 90 - 265 VAC RTN L N R7 10 kΩ R8 150 Ω R5 3 kΩ R19 1 kΩ D2 DL4007 D3 UF4007 D5 1N4148 VR3 ZMM5259B-7 39 V Q3 MMBT3904 D7 BAV21WS-7-F D6 DL4936 D8 MBRS4201T3G D4 UF4002 VR1 P6KE200A R20 10 kΩ BR1 2KBP06M 600 V F1 3.15 A RV1 275 VAC C8 330 µF 50 V C7 2.2 nF 250 VAC C10 330 µF 50 V C4 10 µF 16 V C12 1 µF 50 V C13 100 nF 50 V C5 22 µF 50 V LinkSwitch-PH U1 LNK406EG C3 1 µF 400 V C1 47 nF 275 VAC C2 100 nF 630 V R18 510 Ω 1 W C11 220 nF 630 V R12 15 Ω 1% R13 130 Ω 1/2 W D1 DL4002 Q2 IRFR310 VR2 ZMM5245B-7 15 V Q1 FMMT558 C6 15 nF 50 V Figure 7. Schematic of an Isolated, TRIAC Dimmable, High Power Factor, Universal Input, 14 W LED Driver.

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Rev. G 06/15 6 LNK403-410/413-420 www.power.com Diode D3 and VR1 clamp the drain voltage to a safe level due to the effects of leakage inductance. Diode D4 is necessary to prevent reverse current from flowing through U1 for the period of the rectified AC input voltage that the voltage across C2 falls to below the reflected output voltage (VOR). Diode D6, C5, R7 and R8 create the primary bias supply from an auxiliary winding on the transformer. Capacitor C4 provides local decoupling for the BYPASS pin of U1 which is the supply pin for the internal controller. During start-up C4 is charged to ~6 V from an internal high-voltage current source tied to the device DRAIN pin. This allows the part to start switching at which point the operating supply current is provided from the bias supply via R5. Capacitor C4 also selects the output power mode (10 mF for reduced power was selected to reduce dissipation in U1 and increase efficiency). Feedback The bias winding voltage is proportional to the output voltage (set by the turns ratio between the bias and secondary windings). This allows the output voltage to be monitored without secondary-side feedback components. Resistor R6 converts the bias voltage into a current which is fed into the FEEDBACK pin of U1. The internal engine within U1 combines the FEEDBACK pin current, VOLTAGE MONITOR pin current and drain current information to provide a constant output current over a 1.5:1 output voltage variation (LED string voltage variation of ±25%) at a fixed line input voltage. To limit the output voltage at no-load an output overvoltage protection circuit is set by D7, C12, R20, VR3, C13, Q3 and R19. Should the output load be disconnected then the bias voltage will increase until VR3 conducts, turning on Q3 and reducing the current into the FEEDBACK pin. When this current drops below 20 mA the part enters auto-restart and switching is disabled for 1500 ms allowing time for the output and bias voltages to fall. Output Rectification The transformer secondary winding is rectified by D8 and filtered by C8 and C10. A Schottky barrier diode was selected for efficiency and the combined value of C8 and C10 were selected to give peak-to-peak and LED ripple current equal to 40% of the mean value. For designs where lower ripple is desirable the output capacitance value can be increased. A small pre-load is provided by R15 which limits the output voltage under no-load conditions. TRIAC Phase Dimming Control Compatibility The requirement to provide output dimming with low cost, TRIAC-based, leading edge phase dimmers introduces a number of trade-offs in the design. Due to the much lower power consumed by LED based lighting the current drawn by the overall lamp is below the holding current of the TRIAC within the dimmer. This can cause undesirable behaviors such as limited dimming range and/or flickering as the TRIAC fires inconsistently. The relatively large impedance the LED lamp presents to the line allows significant ringing to occur due to the inrush current charging the input capacitance when the TRIAC turns on. This too can cause similar undesirable behavior as the ringing may cause the TRIAC current to fall to zero and turn off. To overcome these issues two circuits, the Active Damper and Passive Bleeder, are incorporated. The drawback of these circuits is increased dissipation and therefore reduced efficiency of the supply. For non-dimming applications these components can simply be omitted. The Active Damper consists of components R9, R10, R11, R12, D1, Q1, C6, VR2, Q2 in conjunction with R13. This circuit limits the inrush current that flows to charge C2 when the TRIAC turns on by placing R13 in series for the first 1 ms of the TRIAC conduction. After approximately 1 ms, Q2 turns on and shorts R13. This keeps the power dissipation on R13 low and allows a larger value during current limiting. Resistor R9, R10, R11 and C6 provide the 1 ms delay after the TRIAC conducts. Transistor Q1 discharges C6 when the TRIAC is not conducting and VR2 clamps the gate voltage of Q2 to 15 V. The Passive Bleeder circuit is comprised of C11 and R18. This helps to keep the input current above the TRIAC holding current while the input current corresponding to the effective driver resistance increases during each AC half-cycle.

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Rev. G 06/15 7 LNK403-410/413-420 www.power.com 7 W High Power Factor Non-Dimmable LED Driver Design Example with Enhanced Line Regulation The circuit schematic in Figure 8 shows a high power-factor LED driver based on a LNK413EG from the LinkSwitch-PH family of devices. It was optimized to drive an LED string at a voltage of 21 V with a constant current of 0.33 A, ideal for PAR20/PAR30 lamp retro-fit applications. The design operates over the universal input voltage range of 90 VAC to 265 VAC and is a non-dimming application. A non-dimming application has tighter output current variation with changes in the line voltage than a dimming application. It’s key to note that, although not specified for dimming, no circuit damage will result if the end user does operate the design with a phase controlled dimmer. Circuit Description Input Stage Fuse F1 provides protection from component failures while RV1 provides a clamp during differential line surges, keeping the peak drain voltage of U1 below the 725 V rating of the internal power FET. Bridge rectifier BR1 rectifies the AC line voltage. EMI filtering is provided by L1-L3, C2 together with the safety rated Y class capacitor (C7) that bridges the safety isolation barrier between primary and secondary. Resistor R2 and R3 act to damp any resonances formed between L1, L2, C2 and the AC line impedance. A small bulk capacitor (C3) is required to provide a low impedance source for the primary switching current. The maximum value of C2 and C3 is limited in order to maintain a power factor of greater than 0.9. LinkSwitch-PH Primary To provide peak line voltage information to U1 the incoming rectified AC peak charges C8 via D6. This is then fed into the VOLTAGE MONITOR pin of U1 as a current via R4, R7 and R8. The VOLTAGE MONITOR pin current and the FEEDBACK pin current are used internally to control the average output LED current. The combined value of R4, R7 and R8 (3.909 MW) and R11, R12 (1.402 MW) connected to the VOLTAGE MONITOR pin provides excellent line regulation over the entire 90 VAC to 265 VAC input range. The VOLTAGE MONITOR pin current is also used by the device to set the line input overvoltage and undervoltage protection thresholds. Diode D1 and VR1 clamp the drain voltage to a safe level due to the effects of leakage inductance. A Zener clamp was selected for lowest component count and highest efficiency. Diode D5 is necessary to prevent reverse current from flowing through U1 during the period when the AC input voltage is lower than the reflected output voltage (VOR). A space efficient RM6 core was selected for this design. The RM core geometry helps minimizes audible noise but requires the use of flying leads to meet safety spacing requirements. Diode D3, C6, R5, R9 and R18 create the primary bias supply from an auxiliary winding on the transformer. Resistor R5 provides filtering of leakage inductance generated voltage spikes to improve tracking of the bias and output voltages. It also forms a pole with C6 at ~100 Hz. Resistors R9 and R18 act as a small load to ensure that the bias voltage collapses during output short-circuit when U1 enters auto-restart operation to protect the supply. Output overvoltage and load disconnection protection is provided by D8, C14, R24, VR3, C15, R23 and Q2. Should the output LED load become disconnected the output voltage will rise causing an associated rise in the bias winding voltage across C14. Once this exceeds the voltage rating of VR3, Q2 turns on pulling down the FEEDBACK pin of U1 and initiating auto-restart operation. Once in auto-restart the low duty cycle of operation (~3%) together with the small pre-load on the output prevents the output voltage rising to a high level. Once the output load is reconnected normal operation resumes. Figure 8. Schematic of an Isolated, Non-Dimmable, High Power Factor, Universal Input, 7 W LED Driver. PI-5991-101210 D S BP V R FB CONTROL FL2 T1 RM6 FL1 1 FL3 6 2 R4 2 MΩ 1%R21 kΩ L1 1000 µH L3 1000 µH L2 1000 µH R3 1 kΩ R7 1 MΩ 1% R8 909 kΩ 1% R11 1.0 MΩ 1% R12 402 kΩ 1% R19 24.9 kΩ 1% R15 150 kΩ R6 20 kΩ 21 V, 330 mA 90 - 265 VAC RTN L N R9 10 kΩ R18 10 kΩ R5 75 Ω R10 3 kΩ R23 1 kΩ D6 DL4007 D1 UF4007 D4 1N4148 VR3 ZMM5259B-7 39 V Q2 MMBT3904 D8 BAV21WS-7-F D3 DL4936 D2 MBRS4201T3G D5 ES1D VR1 P6KE200A R24 10 kΩ BR1 DF06S-E3/45 600 V F1 3.15 A RV1 275 VAC C5 150 µF 35 V C7 2.2 nF 250 VAC C4 150 µF 35 V C12 10 µF 10 V C14 1 µF 50 V C15 100 nF 50 V C6 22 µF 50 V LinkSwitch-PH U1 LNK413EG C8 1 µF 400 VC2 22 nF 275 VAC C3 100 nF 400 V

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Rev. G 06/15 8 LNK403-410/413-420 www.power.com Capacitor C12 provides local decoupling for the BYPASS pin of U1 which is the supply pin for the internal controller. During start-up C4 is charged to ~6 V from an internal high-voltage current source tied to the device DRAIN pin. Once the bias voltage has risen into regulation the operating supply current is provided via R10. Diode D4 prevents U1 from charging C6 during start-up which would increase the start-up delay time. Feedback The bias winding voltage is proportional to the output voltage (set by the turns ratio between the bias and secondary windings). This allows the output voltage to be monitored without secondary-side feedback components. Resistor R15 converts the bias voltage into a current which is fed into the FEEDBACK pin of U1. The internal engine within U1 combines the FEEDBACK pin current, VOLTAGE MONITOR pin current and drain current information to provide a constant output current over a 2:1 output voltage range. Output Rectification The transformer secondary winding is rectified by D2 and filtered by C4 and C5. A Schottky barrier diode was selected for efficiency and the combined value of C4 and C5 were selected to give an acceptable LED ripple current. For designs where lower ripple is desirable the output capacitance value can be increased. A small pre-load is provided by R6 which limits the output voltage under no-load conditions. Key Application Considerations Power Table The data sheet power table (Table 1) represents the minimum and maximum practical continuous output power based on the following conditions: 1. Efficiency of 80% 2. Device local ambient of 70 °C 3. Sufficient heat sinking to keep the device temperature below 100 °C 4. For minimum output power column • Reflected output voltage (VOR) of 120 V • FEEDBACK pin current of 135 mA • BYPASS pin capacitor value of 10 mF 5. For maximum output power column • Reflected output voltage (VOR) of 65 V • FEEDBACK pin current of 165 mA • BYPASS pin capacitor value of 100 mF (LNK4x3EG = 10 mF) Note that input line voltages above 85 VAC do not change the power delivery capability of LinkSwitch-PH devices. Device Selection Select the device size by comparing the required output power to the values in Table 1. For thermally challenging designs, e.g., incandescent lamp replacement, where either the ambient temperature local to the LinkSwitch-PH device is high and/or there is minimal space for heat sinking use the minimum output power column. This is selected by using a 10 mF BYPASS pin capacitor and results in a lower device current limit and therefore lower conduction losses. For open frame design or designs where space is available for heat sinking then refer to the maximum output power column. This is selected by using a 100 mF BYPASS pin capacitor for all but the LNK4x3 which has only one power setting. In all cases in order to obtain the best output current tolerance maintain the device temperature below 100 °C Maximum Input Capacitance To achieve high power factor, the capacitance used in both the EMI filter and for decoupling the rectified AC (bulk capacitor) must be limited in value. The maximum value is a function of the output power of the design and reduces as the output power reduces. For the majority of designs limit the total capacitance to less than 200 nF with a bulk capacitor value of 100 nF. Film capacitors are recommended compared to ceramic types as they minimize audible noise with operating with leading edge phase dimmers. Start with a value of 10 nF for the capacitance in the EMI filter and increase in value until there is sufficient EMI margin. REFERENCE Pin Resistance Value Selection The LinkSwitch-PH family contains phase dimming devices, LNK403-410, and non-dimming devices, LNK413-420. The non-dimmable devices use a 24.9 kW ±1% REFERENCE pin resistor in high-line and universal input voltage designs and 49.9 kW ±1% in low-line input voltage designs, for best output current tolerance (over AC input voltage changes). The dimmable devices use 49.9 kW ±1% to achieve the widest dimming range. VOLTAGE MONITOR Pin Resistance Network Selection For widest AC phase angle dimming range with LNK403-410, use a 4 MW resistor connected to the line voltage peak detector circuit. Make sure that the resistor’s voltage rating is sufficient for the peak line voltage. If necessary use multiple series connected resistors. For best line regulation, use a series combination of resistors that equals 3.909 MW connected to the line voltage peak detector. In addition, connect a 1 MW in series with a 402 kW resistor (1.402 MW total) from the VOLTAGE MONITOR pin to SOURCE pin. Use 1% tolerance resistors for good accuracy. Line regulation can be further improved by using the PIXls spreadsheet’s fine tuning section. See the LinkSwitch-PH Application Note for more information. Primary Clamp and Output Reflected Voltage VOR A primary clamp is necessary to limit the peak drain to source voltage. A Zener clamp requires the fewest components and board space and gives the highest efficiency. RCD clamps are also acceptable however the peak drain voltage should be carefully verified during start-up and output short-circuit as the clamping voltage varies with significantly with the peak drain current. For the highest efficiency, the clamping voltage should be selected to be at least 1.5 times the output reflected voltage, VOR, as this keeps the leakage spike conduction time short. When using a Zener clamp in a universal input or high-line only application, a VOR of less than 135 V is recommended to allow

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Rev. G 06/15 9 LNK403-410/413-420 www.power.com for the absolute tolerances and temperature variations of the Zener. This will ensure efficient operation of the clamp circuit and will also keep the maximum drain voltage below the rated breakdown voltage of the FET. An RCD (or RCDZ) clamp provides tighter clamp voltage tolerance than a Zener clamp. The RCD clamp is more cost effective than the Zener clamp but requires more careful design to ensure that the maximum drain voltage does not exceed the power FET breakdown voltage. These VOR limits are based on the BVDSS rating of the internal FET, a VOR of 60 V to 100 V is typical for most designs, giving the best PFC and regulation performance. Series Drain Diode An ultra-fast or Schottky diode in series with the drain is necessary to prevent reverse current flowing through the device. The voltage rating must exceed the output reflected voltage, VOR. The current rating should exceed two times the average primary current and have a peak rating equal to the maximum drain current of the selected LinkSwitch-PH device. Line Voltage Peak Detector Circuit LinkSwitch-PH devices use the peak line voltage to regulate the power delivery to the output. A capacitor value of 1 mF to 4.7 mF is recommended to minimize line ripple and give the highest power factor (>0.9), smaller values are acceptable but result in lower PF and higher line current distortion. Operation with Phase Controlled Dimmers Dimmer switches control incandescent lamp brightness by not conducting (blanking) for a portion of the AC voltage sine wave. This reduces the RMS voltage applied to the lamp thus reducing the brightness. This is called natural dimming and the LinkSwitch-PH LNK403-410 devices when configured for dimming utilize natural dimming by reducing the LED current as the RMS line voltage decreases. By this nature, line regulation performance is purposely decreased to increase the dimming range and more closely mimic the operation of an incandescent lamp. Using a 49.9 kW REFERENCE pin resistance selects natural dimming mode operation. Leading Edge Phase Controlled Dimmers The requirement to provide flicker-free output dimming with low cost, TRIAC-based, leading edge phase dimmers introduces a number of trade-offs in the design. Due to the much lower power consumed by LED based lighting the current drawn by the overall lamp is below the holding current of the TRIAC within the dimmer. This causes undesirable behaviors such as limited dimming range and/or flickering. The relatively large impedance the LED lamp presents to the line allows significant ringing to occur due to the inrush current charging the input capacitance when the TRIAC turns on. This too can cause similar undesirable behavior as the ringing may cause the TRIAC current to fall to zero and turn off. To overcome these issues two circuits, the Active Damper and Passive Bleeder, are incorporated. The drawback of these circuits is increased dissipation and therefore reduced efficiency of the supply so for non-dimming applications these components can simply be omitted. Figure 9(a) shows the line voltage and current at the input of a leading edge TRIAC dimmer with Figure 9(b) showing the resultant rectified bus voltage. In this example, the TRIAC conducts at 90 degrees. Figure 10 shows undesired rectified bus voltage and current with the TRIAC turning off prematurely and restarting. If the TRIAC is turning off before the end of the half-cycle erratically or alternate half AC cycles have different conduction angles then flicker will be observed in the LED light due to variations in the output current. This can be solved by including a bleeder and damper circuit. Dimmers will behave differently based on manufacturer and power rating, for example a 300 W dimmer requires less dampening and requires less power loss in the bleeder than a 600 W or 1000 W dimmer due to different drive circuits and TRIAC holding current specifications. Line voltage also has a significant impact as at high-line for a given output power the input current and therefore TRIAC current is lower but the peak inrush current when the input capacitance charges is higher creating more ringing. Finally multiple lamps in parallel driven from the same dimmer can introduce more ringing due to the 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Conduction Angle (°) L in e Vo lt ag e (a t D im m er In p u t) ( V ) L in e C u rr en t (T h ro u g h D im m er ) (A )350 250 150 50 -50 -150 -250 -350 0.35 0.25 0.15 0.05 -0.05 -0.15 -0.25 -0.35 PI-5983-060810 Voltage Current 0.5 0 50 100 150 200 250 400350300 Conduction Angle (°) R ec ti fi ed In p u t Vo lt ag e (V ) R ec ti fi ed In p u t C u rr en t (A ) 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0.35 0.3 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 PI-5984-060810 Voltage Current Figure 9. (a) Ideal Input Voltage and Current Waveforms for a Leading Edge TRIAC Dimmer at 90° Conduction Angle. (b) Resultant Waveforms Following Rectification of TRIAC Dimmer Output.

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