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What is an ic chip?

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Post Date: 2023-09-12

What is an ic chip?

What is the use of ic chips in this article? What is an ic chip? How to judge the quality of ic chip? IC Chip (Integrated Circuit Chip) is an integrated circuit formed by a large number of microelectronic components (transistors, resistors, capacitors, etc.) placed on a plastic base to make a chip. IC chip includes wafer chip and package chip, and the corresponding IC chip production line is composed of wafer production line and package production line.


What are the classifications of ic chips

The product classification of ic chips can have the following classification methods:

(一)The type of integrated circuit is generally classified by the number of electronic components including transistors

SSI(Small integrated circuit), transistor number 10 ~ 100

MSI(Medium integrated circuit), transistor number 100 ~ 1000

LSI(large-scale integrated circuit), transistor number 1000 ~ 100000

VLSI(Very large scale Integrated circuit), transistor number more than 100,000.

(二)Classification according to functional structure

Integrated circuit according to its function, structure is different, can be divided into analog integrated circuit and digital integrated circuit two categories.

(三)Classified by production process

Integrated circuits can be divided into semiconductor integrated circuits and membrane integrated circuits according to the production process. Membrane integrated circuits are classified into thick film integrated circuits and thin film integrated circuits.

(四)Different classification according to conductive type

Integrated circuits can be divided into bipolar integrated circuits and unipolar integrated circuits according to the conductive type. Bipolar integrated circuit production process is complex, large power consumption, representing the integrated circuit TTL, ECL, HTL, LST-TL, STTL and other types.

The production process of unipolar integrated circuit is simple, the power consumption is also low, and it is easy to make large-scale integrated circuit, which represents the integrated circuit has CMOS, NMOS, PMOS and other types.

(五)Classification by ic chip use

Integrated circuits can be divided into integrated circuits for television sets according to their use. Audio integrated circuit, DVD player integrated circuit, video recorder integrated circuit, computer (microcomputer) integrated circuit, electronic organ integrated circuit, communication integrated circuit, camera integrated circuit, remote control integrated circuit, language integrated circuit, alarm integrated circuit and various application-specific integrated circuit.

Use and function of ic chip

1, ic chip use - reduce the use of components

The birth of integrated circuits, small-scale integrated circuits reduce the number of content components, and have greatly improved technology on scattered components.

2, ic chip use - product performance has been effectively improved

The components are gathered together, which not only reduces the interference of external signals, but also greatly improves the circuit design and improves the running speed.

3, ic chip use - more convenient application

A function corresponds to a circuit, and a function is concentrated into an integrated circuit, so that in future applications, what functions can be applied to the corresponding integrated circuit, which greatly facilitates the application.

An integrated circuit is a tiny electronic device or component. A certain process is used to interconnect the transistors, diodes, resistors, capacitors and inductors required in a circuit and the wiring together to make a small or several small pieces of semiconductor chips or dielectric substrates, and then packaged in a tube shell to become a miniature structure with the required circuit functions; All components have been structurally formed as a whole, making electronic components a big step forward in terms of miniaturization, low power consumption and high reliability. Its English (integrated circuit) is represented by the letter "IC". Integrated circuit technology includes chip manufacturing technology and design technology, which is mainly reflected in the ability of processing equipment, processing technology, packaging and testing, mass production and design innovation.

How to judge the quality of ic chip

First, no road detection

This method is carried out when the ic is not welded into the circuit, under normal circumstances, a multimeter can be used to measure the positive and reverse resistance values between each pin corresponding to the ground pin, and compare with the intact ic.

Second, on the road detection

This is a multimeter to detect the DC resistance of each IC pin in the circuit (IC in the circuit), AC and DC voltage to ground and the total working current detection method. This method overcomes the limitation of substitutable IC and the trouble of disassembling IC by substitution test method, and is the most common and practical method for detecting IC.

Dc operating voltage measurement

This is a way to measure the DC supply voltage and the working voltage of peripheral components by using a multimeter DC voltage block in the case of power-on. The DC voltage value of each IC pin to ground is detected and compared with the normal value, and then the fault range is compressed to find the damaged components. Note the following 8 points when measuring:

(1) The multimeter should have a large enough internal resistance, at least more than 10 times the resistance of the measured circuit, so as not to cause large measurement errors.

(2) The potentiometer is usually rotated to the middle position, if it is a TV, the signal source should use a standard color bar signal generator.

(3) The stylus or probe should take anti-slip measures. Because any instant short circuit is easy to damage the IC. The following methods can be taken to prevent the sliding of the pen: take a bicycle valve core set on the nib of the watch, and grow the nib of the watch about 0.5mm, which can make the nib of the watch well in contact with the test point, and can effectively prevent slipping, even if it hits the adjacent point, it will not short circuit.

(4) When a certain pin voltage is not consistent with the normal value, it should be analyzed according to whether the pin voltage has an important impact on the normal operation of the ic and the corresponding changes in other pin voltages, and the ic can be judged.

(5)ic pin voltage will be affected by peripheral components. When the peripheral components have leakage, short circuit, open circuit or variable value, or the peripheral circuit is connected to a potentiometer with variable resistance value, the position of the potentiometer sliding arm is different, and the pin voltage will change.

(6) If the ic each pin voltage is normal, the ic is generally considered normal; If the ic part of the pin voltage is abnormal, you should start from the maximum deviation from the normal value, check the peripheral components have no fault, if there is no fault, the ic is likely to be damaged.

(7) For dynamic receiving devices, such as television sets, the ic pin voltage is different when there is no signal. If it is found that the pin voltage should not change but change greatly, and the change with the signal size and different positions of the adjustable element does not change, the ic damage can be determined.

(8) For devices with multiple working modes, such as video recorders, the ic pin voltage is also different under different working modes.

Ac operating voltage measurement method

In order to master the AC signal changes of the ic, you can use a multimeter with a db jack to approximate the AC operating voltage of the ic. When testing, set the multimeter in AC voltage gear and insert the front pen into the db jack. For a multimeter without a db jack, connect a 0.1 to 0.5μf straight isolating capacitor to the front pen in series. This method is suitable for ic with low operating frequency, such as video amplifier stage of TV, field scanning circuit, etc. Since the natural frequencies of these circuits are different and the waveforms are different, the measured data is approximate and can only be used for reference.

Total current measurement method

This method is a method to judge the quality of IC by detecting the total current of the IC power supply line. Since the vast majority of the IC is directly coupled, when the IC is damaged (such as a certain pn junction breakdown or open circuit), it will cause post-stage saturation and cutoff, so that the total current changes. Therefore, the IC can be judged by measuring the total current. It is also possible to measure the voltage drop of the resistance in the power supply path and calculate the total current value using Ohm's law.

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